An anthology explores the relationships between experimental and Aufschreibsystemen before 1800
Research projects, conferences and books on epistemological relations as “Literature and Science” or “The knowledge of literature” are difficult since some ten years the trend in the humanities. For transporting not only novels, plays and poems, often stocks of knowledge and modes of thought, but rather used every study and knowledge necessary linguistic or media forms of representation and communication. Each science thus repeats an often implicit, less reflective, “Poetics of Knowledge” (see Joseph Vogl’s excellent term) back. And these forms of representation usually act not only on the basis of finished results, but already influencing the production of knowledge itself
Until now, along with Hans-Jorg Rheinberger’s history, laboratory of molecular biology in the 20th Century ( “Experimental Systems and epistemic things”) and a monograph on the “literary man attempt in the 18th century” by Nicolas Pethes and a thick anthology edited by him to try no more people work on the history of literary experimentation and the textual site of scientific experiments. This research gap is now closing thoroughly by Michael Gamper, Research Professor of Literature at the ETH Zurich to be tried. Three major conferences on literature and experimental (broken down into the periods: I: 1580-1790, II: 1790-1890 and finally) from 1890 to the present, he has organized this in Zurich. The presentations of the first conference now available as a book. And the reading is worthwhile, both from scientific-like from a literary perspective.
Persuasive Essays are unquestionably one of the most modern methods of knowledge discovery. They are defined as initiation into Gamper provoked experience. Their implementation involves a fusion of performative and representational procedures, because every empirical process requires interpretation and distribution of the observed communicative events. As an organized and controlled experiments, the experiments are based on the human imagination, their results must be communicated verbally and rhetorically. This experiments are undeniably linked to aesthetics, rhetoric and narrative. Sebastian Kühn analyzed in this volume very strongly the use of languages, contexts and production codes of scientific experimentation in the 17 diaries and 18 Century. But does the literature, the latest and tightened since the beginning of the modern age, a disposition to exploratory writing – ie a notional sprachspielerischen exploration of the possible and the probable.
The volume outlines a concise introduction of the humanities and scientific-frame narrative for the following, numerous case studies (individual whose valuable insights here can not all be mentioned). Since the beginning of modern times, therefore, promoted the appreciation of theoretical curiosity in the conversion of divine providence to an international order of contingency-ended experimental trial and play through the central recognition technology. The culture of experimentation remains not limited to laboratories, but it also includes human experiments, experimental procedures in the arts and depending on the width of the experimental concept and thought experiments, or political-social scale tests. The physicist and waste book-aphorist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg examined in May 1792 the French Revolution as a political experiment in which a nation’s state constitution reorganized, and Georg Forster, and Friedrich Schlegel, who in his Athenaeum Fragments 1798 by the “Try the moral chemistry in the Great “, wrote, trying to understand the political events in France as an experiment.
The 22 case studies to raise a contribution to Francis Bacon’s literary experiments. Wolfgang Krohn understand Bacon’s writing in various genres and styles, inventing in his train that also the genus name “essay” as a lifelong search for the appropriate rhetoric for his project of a renewal of society through science. Wolfgang Müller-Funk considers the work of the second godfather of literary essayist, Michel de Montaigne, from the point, how will he achieve this through its specific hermeneutics and spelling anthropological and cultural experimental arrangements of the self and the social life world, which is less than natural comes to self-knowledge.
Hans Christian Hermann analyze the transition from alchemy into an experimental scientific research in names, iconography and political program of 1657 was founded in Florence Accademia de Cimento. Following Foucault wissenshistorische distinction between “épreuve” (sample) and “enquête” (inquiry) and also on its history of power Hermann shows that the increasing appreciation of the experiment is taking place not only in the pure sciences, but also in the economic – and fiscal innovation of an economic “register” and advanced accounting by Cosimo de ‘Medici’s administration at work.
Richard Martin Maurach and devote himself Nate’s words, images and metaphors, which represent both theoretical writings as well as literary texts, the new, confusing and dangerous ways of acquiring knowledge by experimenters who were often described as an adventurer or schemers, and by the choice of images and concepts of the new techniques, cultural and moral frameworks of knowledge. Nate shows about how the epistemic idea of openness her literary counterpart in forms like the essay and the romance, which is in the 17 Century prevailing neoclassical literary theory to oppose the closure. “Scientific Romances” as Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels” or more realistically narrated Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, “demonstrate not only an appreciation of the curiositas but also to describe Robinson’s experience of survival as a series of trials, errors, corrections, and ultimately successful colonization.
Rather fictional, gedankenexperimentelle constellations of literary experiment and investigate the studies of Peter Schnyder finally myth of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s “Essais de theodicy” and Cornelia game, understands the Blaise Pascal’s wager as a narrowing of mathematics, aesthetics and theology, while his insistence on the Categories of undiscoverable and dissected out of ignorance. Specific forms of the Baroque literature, and the conversation game is refereed scientific experiments and discussions dedicated to Misia Sophia Doms and Maximilian Berggruen. The latter shows, as in Georg Philipp Harsdorffer “woman talk games” on one hand in the style polyhistorical knowingly usual opinions on the relationship between art and nature are presented in the experiment, and how they are presented here but in one, the conditional form of conversation, “discursive Examination” out of which ultimately results in a plea for scientific and for sprachspielerische experimentation. The dialogue as a Probative-open form of knowledge (or even the knowledge production) is also based on the natural history by Thomas Fries, respectively, economic dialogue fictions by Denis Diderot and Ferdinando Galiani.
In a startling comparison confronted Ulrich Stadler experimental arrangements in the vicinity of the Royal Society in London, while decried as speculative rationalist philosopher Christian Wolff and Pedro Calderón de la Barca’s play “La vida es sueño”. The poet is distinguished from the much-designed mechanistic interpretations of experimental scientists or philosophers, not only by attempting the subject: a man, even a king’s son, who is testing his options for action as a power point. Stadler sees Calderon opened in theatrical meta-science experimental design, experimental poetic scope for freedom, which should be in the modern era to one of the most important functions of fictional literature – even if those spaces were poetic way in the Catholic author Calderón himself immediately back ausgekittet with “Counter-Reformation ideology.” Literary human experiments also analyzes the contribution of Roland Borgards that of literary texts by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Nicolas Edme Rétif crossing experiments of humans and monkeys, appeared in a special fascination of the Enlightenment to be a very rich literary material in the story – anthropological designs locates. In order to experiment on humans, it is ultimately at the many educational reform projects since the Enlightenment. Jörg Room scholarly essay reconstructs August Ludwig Schlozer “anti-Graves,” a plea for a scientific transformation of Waldorf Education, which gave the Göttingen historian and law professor then in the education of his daughter Dorothea practically experimental confirmation. Dorothea Schlozer, dominated the age of 16 years for ten languages, was the age of 17 in 1787 as the first woman with a PhD. PhD. Room understands that life and culture run by Dorothea not only as an educational experiment of her father in the educational debates of the time to locate – it also shows the role the media of communication (especially letters and pictures played) in the successful promotion of successful human experiment .
Michael Gamper, from the autumn 2009, a monograph on “Elektropoetologie. Fictions of electricity 1740-1870 “appears, explores the art of experimentation Lichtenberg as a physics professor, who dealt hard with the then highly popular experiments with electricity, but also insisted on the experimental potential of mathematics and the fictional, imaginative proportions when experimenting. Yvonne Wübben shows a similar approach the analogies between the statements made in irritating conversational reports of physiological Vivisektionsberichten and “thoughts” anthropological texts on assets such as laughing, crying, sighing and dreaming, as the University Hall in the mid-18 Century, many created. Two types of experimental culture, the bodies in the open with a knife as well as working more than text and watching from outside the body of thought which argues short stories, dealt with the production of novelty and its adequate representation in essayförmigen texts.
Other essays devoted to specific text genres, such as the dream narrative (Benjamin Specht), the tale (Neither Christine) and Johann Gottlob Benjamin arrow “experiment in moral tales” (Gunhild Berg) and show how it within the context of a largely enforced awareness of literary agents Moreover, experiments and present narrative and evaluate experiment. Surprising is Christine Weders realization that in Christoph Martin Wieland “Musaus and ETA Hoffmann’s literary fairy tales, both the old magic, as well as new experimental arts are critical to the test – and thus neither the tale of a naive belief in experimentation to attach, or simply romantic in magic or science to express criticism. Instead, run through the tales of magic and experimental fashion ironic literary enlightenment of the Enlightenment.
Andreas Seidler shows how Wieland was influenced transition from the closed form of the epic ‘and didactic, with its metaphysical statements to the modern, open and experimental form of the novel by contemporary scientific methods. Marie-Christin Wilm demonstrated especially at the theoretical writings of Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz’s to participate as its guiding category of experience, experiment, observation, and rehearsal on the contemporary discourse about experiments and how far his work as a literary whole experimental system about the conditio humana grasped and understood.
Gamper heuristics literature and literary history, and science experiment is very stimulating. The results of the first volume of this scale, the media-oriented forms of cultural history of experimentation prove the interfaces of provoking experiences and rhetorical and narrative writing process as an aesthetic and epistemically relevant key moments. We must therefore look forward to the following two volumes, especially in the modern era since the 20th Century is the talk of literary experiments, ubiquitously and dogma of the vanguards of all become couleur.
The present volume probed with the fullness and conciseness of his detailed studies of the early and prehistory of experimentation and its textual formatting. It provides, especially concentrated in the introduction but also in some Gunhild Berg’s typology of eight different levels, where you can talk about the experimental nature of literature, fruitful questions and research models. The interaction and Implikationsgeschichte of experimental systems and Aufschreibesysteme from controlled experimental set-ups, observations and their linguistic-media framing is so, even for the early modern period, certainly not yet been dealt with exhaustively. There can be no doubt make more cogent case studies of other sciences and to other texts and authors. But offers for such impact studies of the present volume is an inspiring and solid foundation. It has now been brought to the thorough test. The results convincing. And the science activities developed and tested tools such as literary and invite for further use.
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