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Research Report – Inclusive Practice

Posted by Essays on May 30, 2013 in Sample

Inclusive Practice

Research Report:

Let’s first describe what ‘learning’ is. Through education and experience, the skills and knowledge we acquire is Learning. Learning is an essential element in one’s growth. Although our intelligence as well as our learning abilities is intangible, they are our greatest assets since anything one does to reinvent and update their understanding, it enables one to grow from where he/she is today to where he/she wants to go. Learning must not be confused with education as it is just a portion of learning. Learning starts from our birth till the day we die, so we learn in both conscious and unconscious states. It is very essential for the development of human population as when a person grows the whole society grows as a result.

Inclusive practice is an approach towards giving learning and educational chances, the ones which are unbiased and free from obstacles, considering the needs of every individual, people of different genders, cultures, race and disabled people. All students’ educational requirements are fulfilled effectively through best practices engaged by the teachers. But today many teachers have to deal with such obstacles in amplifying students’ achievements. These difficulties range from students’ perceptions to environmental issues that result in limited or no success. Let’s look at some factors in detail.

These issues can be categorized into personal, social and cultural factors that have an impact on learning. Among the personal factors first come the students’ perceptions itself.  It’s based on student’s behavior and attitudes, how seriously they take their studies and how much they love learning. Also it’s based on what a student expects from himself. If he thinks he can do well and excel, he will surely perform well but if he thinks in the opposite way, he won’t do well, get disturbed and ultimately surrender as per failure syndrome (Brophy; 1998). They should be self confident and believe that they carry in them the ability to achieve or else they will perform poorly every time. It is further linked to their capability to deal with problems. This requires past experience that can help them to deal with classroom problems. Because of past learning practice they can speedily grasp what is being taught but many students lack this ability and are a hindering element towards victory. Another vital factor is the family a student belongs to. For instance if students’ parents are not well educated especially mothers, they won’t get any educational help at home. Also if the family has conservative and low-income background their kids are forced to get low standard education or can’t go abroad to study.

Among the social and cultural factors poverty is the biggest issue. Kids belonging to such families don’t get the opportunities to learn outside the school, won’t be able to attend famous schools, their family issues disturb and discourage them. This is common in urban areas and crime-infested areas where kids show their violence in classrooms, they are not keen to learn so they don’t attend schools while their parents support them in this. They are not excited to learn so they give up schooling, they don’t try further; they are disrupted either by other students or family members, physical and mental issues or simply they are not being motivated by their teachers. All these issues affect students’ motivation and thus their learning capability is influenced (Leland; 2005). Another cultural impact is difference in races or disability (both physical and mental) in kids, due to which all kids are not treated equally or such kids feel different and isolated from other kids. This hurts their feelings and motivation.

Every person possesses the ability to learn. This includes cognitive, physical and sensory abilities that will be discussed separately in detail.

Starting with cognitive abilities, they the brain-based ability we must to carry out any task from the easiest to the most difficlut. They have more to do with the process of how we discover, keep in mind, problem-solve, and focus rather than with any real knowl­edge. The most important cognitive skills includes; concentration: it is an act of will so a kid should be taught to focus on something and then pay attention to it. Learning disability specialist believes that it is essential for kids to concentrate and attend to a task for a lengthened time to achieve some activities.

Perception: students need to interpret situations which can be done by recalling past experience of similar situations and applying them, lack of experience cause misinterpretation. “We see things not as they are, but as we are” (Kant; 1804).

Memory and logical thinking: developing memorizing skills is very important as no student or teacher can show progress if they keep on forgetting and repeat things. Then comes logical thinking which is same as thinking in steps. Students gather facts and information and assemble them in chain-like sequence which eventually becomes meaningful, two vital elements of learning are perpetual and memory trace (Adam; 1971).

Sensory skills include those such as hearing, vision, speech and touch. They are accountable for getting information. Physical abilities changes as a child grow. With age one learns to walk, play, talk, work and carry out all physical activities. This can be referred as motor skill too. All three of these skills are linked and they in almost everyone can be enhanced with correct practice.

It’s normally agreed that schools adopt philosophy of inclusion and act inclusively to supports needs of all types of students (Lupart, 2002. some of these philosophies mentioned in Special Educational unit (2001) are child-centered programming, sharing educational responsibility with students’ families, using less intrusive teaching practices. Report says that schools must describe these visions in a mission statement. A framework also presents a familiar language for debate among stakeholders, and assists stakeholders focus on an instant action. It has established to be helpful in its efforts to sustain alteration at the state and district levels (McGregor, 2001. Boards must offer “sufficient school accommodation” for those who have a right to attend school and students shouldn’t be excluded from public learning due to disability (The Public Schools Act). Provincial legislations and regulations are vital as education comes under provincial jurisdiction (Lutfiyya; 2002). The New Brunswick Education Act outlines some practices that includes; positive chances for everyone, two-way planning by teachers, parents and organization, celebration of differences, interference of family in students’ educational planning, special programs that deal with disabled students and better school environment.

There are many other policies for inclusive practice such as Human Rights Act 1998, Childcare Act (2006), Disability Discrimination Act (2005) etc. Policies and legislative framework is essential to walk on the path of inclusive practice, they have great influence on organization as it sets targets to work on and helps teachers to confront the barriers.


Having discussed the importance of learning and adopting inclusive practice and after coming across all types of obstacles in the success of students, we must now consider the responsibilities of teachers to overcome this. Every teacher, counselor and administrator wishes to be dedicated and help out students to learn and achieve at their uppermost possible stage. For this teachers have some roles and responsibilities to carry out in order to apply inclusive practices in lifelong learning sector. Lifelong learning is to encourage inclusion at the same time as increasing the values of grown-up education following the existing school-leaving age of 16. Lifelong learning refers to student in sixth form education all the way through to adult’s education in a community-based background. Firstly it is important for a person entering the teaching profession to understand all the possible challenges he/she might face. Also they should clearly know what others expect from them and what tasks they have towards their students. Not only is this, but it also important the other way round, it’s also important to consider what a teacher expects from a student. It is said that hypothesis on teacher’s expectations, student’s skill and lifeless biases all have an effect on student’s achievements. What a teachers expects from future outcomes of their students effect both teacher’s opinion and student’s work (Bambarg; 2000). Based on a theory, high hope from student’s work is more likely to improve student’s learning gains (Hale-Benson; 1986) and these high hopes are mostly from upper-class or high income students. While on the opposite side, pessimistic behavior can result in students giving up on learning.

The legislations now have realized that how obstacles in learning are gestated extra support for learning over special educational requirements. There is more interactive nature towards students’ needs and more is focus is applied on what support a child needs rather then what’s wrong with the student. This has affected the roles of professionals therefore their lifelong role should be related to appropriate codes and regulatory needs that encircle the profession. Being a teacher, it we should provide the tools and assets needed to teach students, that is most importantly being well qualified and having a licence to teach.

Some basic tasks of teachers includes; teaching, counseling, organizing, administrating, liaising with external agencies, development, providing staff , assessing, consulting with colleagues, and managing other adults. But there are deep roles to be acted upon in order develop inclusion. Through alteration and delineation of the set of courses teachers can supply learning requirements of every student and develop inclusive classroom (Forlin; 2004). Teachers mull over the capabilities of learners and give relevant plans to make their learning possible, also they focus on students’ behavioral issues and what extra learning aid do they need and their own professional needs. They need self-regulatory skills or else students won’t be beneficial. They then take appropriate actions. Being a student, I too like many others expect my teacher to motivate me during my learning process that way I will not feel frustrated, or won’t give up; I will be encouraged to continue my learning. It is a universal fact that motivation is the route towards goals. When a student has to make choice such as which field to choose, or what to play, if he is motivated towards any one choice he can make better decisions. The significance of motivation is that it encourages the students to complete a task heartily. For instance a person may decide to start a work and he does start it but at some point he may get stuck and then feel frustrated. At this stage, motivations such as telling them how great they are doing and encourage them by saying that you believe in them and their success, such positive acts from teachers, family or friends can help make students devoted and thorough in their tasks. Thus this increases their passion to complete the work (Larson; 2000)

If I was a teacher my role in recognizing the and reaching the needs of learners would engage in evaluating the learners and formulating distinguishable learning results depending on the stage they have achieved in addition to their own skills. But this might require supplementary help and development of learning plans in order involve myself in learning and to attain the already set objectives of students. If there are many students all with different goals then it get harder to devise up and addition help is needed for which teachers should coordinate with the significant professionals to make certain they are conscious of the lesson plan and can support the students? As far as learning styles are concerned, the teacher should guarantee that the action is planned so that the subject can be educated in a way that will motivate the students and meet up their own desires.

For students to achieve internal and external help a referral is need (Tummons; 2007). If you have a line manager, he can be your initial point of contact for referral. If you attend team conferences or get in touch with other teachers, your co-workers may also be capable to help in the course of their own preceding experiences. As they are more experienced and have a knowhow of what should be done in particular situation they can lead new comers well. Also assistance can be available within the organization if there is any learning support department or from skills of life specialists. Various institutes contain specialist resources for assisting disabled learners or may possibly be able to present a learning support assistant. Apart from this there are websites available for help in applying strategies in teaching and dealing with physical or sensory disabled person. As points of referral may vary according to the form of organization a teacher works in; it is their responsibility to uncover what support is obtainable locally.

So we have now discovered the key features of inclusive learning are teacher’s focus on their roles and responsibilities, equality, supporting and motivating students, dealing with disabilities and considering the importance of referrals. Now let’s look at the benefits of inclusive practice. Firstly every parent wants to see their child to live normal life with friends and colleagues, this wish comes true special for disabled students. Learning with people of different cultures, students and teachers learn to appreciate diversity and friendship develop amongst them, treating disabled students like normal students, due to high expectations students learn academic skills and students learn at their own speed and manner within a fostering learning atmosphere.

So my responsibilities relative to other professionals is to entrench promptness, behavior management, role model appropriate behavior such as treating all equally, giving extra support to disabled kids and creating a friendly and motivating atmosphere in classroom, and report any behavioral issues or any problems of distress to the teacher (Wallace, 2007). I would toil with the other professionals concerned to guarantee that pertinent information is shared and that individuals accountable for diverse features of a learner’s support are conscious of any matter that might distress them. It can also be advantageous to put down some vital rules so that both the teacher and the learners are alert of what is expected.



Reflective account and plan:

If I be the teacher and follow the roles and responsibilities mentioned above it can be very effective for students and other professionals. My very first approach was to evaluate the work I need to carry out keeping in mind the requirements of the students. Due to this planning along with referrals I will be able to develop better practices as deep understanding is required. Taking care of physically and mentally disabled students is the most essential element for inclusive performance. So my approach is towards the Equality Act 2010 which can be my strength too.

Often the participation of teachers in learning process is voluntary (mostly because of pressure from colleagues and administration). Some teachers feel that they won’t be able to interact and deal with particular students especially those who need extra support and time. This should not be the case and it can be my or other teacher’s weakness. Teachers should improve this criterion to be able to focus and help students achieve their desired goals.

Promotion of equality, inclusion and diversity in the classroom is not only a hope; it is a necessity.  Under the Disability Discrimination Act 2005, a ‘duty to actively promote’ egalitarianism of opportunity for disabled populace was only placed on educational institutions. Equality in learning is not about just treating every person the same way; it is about lending everyone an equal occasion to achieve their rights in the learning experience. While Diversity is about celebrating inhabitants’ dissimilarities such as knowledge, backgrounds, experiences and skills by heartening them and using those dissimilarities to make wider the learning experience.

A teacher must be able to judge the areas of their success and learn from weaknesses (Tummons; 2007). According to the Equality Act 2010, teachers must give significance to diversity and encourage equality amongst kids. It is said “Valuing the differences in people, whether that relates to gender, race, age, disability or any other individual characteristics they may have” (Gravels, A., 2008). Disabled students are not ought to be discriminated against during their learning process as stated by the Educational Needs and Disability act 2001. In order words all students including those which physical or mental disabilities should feel that they are equally and positively appreciated and hard work and desire to learn is not judged and recognized with biasness.

To increase equality in your classroom, one should consider that your students are not affected by firstly communication. Teachers should make sure that all students understand what is being delivered; you have correct body language, ensure you don’t pass offensive comments and use easy vocabulary. Secondly use of resources. Think whether they might be seen as biased or stereotypical plus that are they appropriate for the learners’ requirements. Thirdly see if students are not bothered by you teaching methods. Different students might have different learning styles so teacher should try to adopt all styles and their teaching methods should vary. Also ensure that every student is participating in learning process and disabled students are not feeling left out. Lastly place emphasis on the environment you are teaching in. See if every student gets the chance to establish effective working relationships with others and they all work as a team. Classroom should secure and reachable so that students with lack of mobility and sensory disabilities do not face difficulties. Diversity and equality is thus the most important element without which no one can develop inclusion.

Because there are many techniques of teaching and all vary to a great extent, it is vital for the teachers to be updated and keep an eye on the ground-breaking and positive method of teaching. This is due to the fact that any one technique cannot be trusted on its success to achieve goals; therefore staying updated can increase the opportunities to improve inclusive practice. Thus bringing changes to your teaching methods which are not productive so far, is a good approach to promote inclusion.

Conclusively, inclusive practice is very important in not just teaching but every other organization. With the application of range of policies and set goals along with student’s presence and enthusiasm in classroom, teachers can develop an inclusive environment.








1. ADAMS, J.A. (1971) A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3 (2), p. 111-150


2. Saskatchewan Special Education Unit (2001). Creating opportunities for students withintellectual or multiple disabilities. Saskatchewan Education.


3. Reisenberger A & Dadzie S (2002), Equality and diversity in adult and community learning – a guide for managers

4. Tummons, J., 2007. Becoming a Professional Tutor in the Lifelong Learning Sector. s.l.:Learning Matters.


5. Lupart, J. (2002). Meeting the educational needs of exceptional learners in Alberta.

6. Exceptionality Education Canada, 11(2,3), 55-70.


7. Wallace, S., 2007. Managing Behaviour in the Lifelong       Learning Sector. s.l.:Learning Matters.


Applying theories and principles for planning and enabling learning

Posted by Essays on May 30, 2013 in Sample


The most challenging issue for school leaders today is enhancing students’ achievement. Nothing can be more complex and frustrating than low students’ performance. Every devoted administrator, teacher and counselor wants students to achieve and learn at their highest possible level. There are some important aspects what school leaders must consider about the barriers to students’ academic achievements. They should make some changes to remove those barriers. The variables that influence students’ success or failure range from students’ natural and learnt ability to environmental issues. One of the most important factors that affects students’ achievements is self-perception. If we consider each issue separately, we come to know that they collectively produce a formed outcome.


Significant Factors Leading To Low Academic Achievement:

Family Background;

The factor which can affect student’s capability of learning dramatically is his/her home life .Obviously, if there is lack of decent income, children will have less learning opportunities consequently. It will then force them to enter into inappropriate educational establishments where they will not be able to gain quality education. In the same way, an emotionally complex family life can lead to lack of concentration in classroom and also causes emotional disturbances.

Students’ Perceptions:

Another significant factor affecting student’s performance is student’s own beliefs and attitude. Psychologists reveal that students who have low expectations for themselves cannot give performance as high as those who expect to do well at school .These students become frustrated and eventually give a poor result. This cycle is generally known as failure syndrome. (Brophy; 1998) Lack of confidence also affects students’ learning ability. It causes no connection or disengagement with learning that leads to low achievement. (Arroyo, Rhoad and drew; 1999) If students don’t believe that they have the power to achieve, they will always produce a poor result. (Brown; 1999)

School Culture:

The school culture can also act as a barrier to students’ achievements. The curriculum should be up to date. If it does not possess relevance and meaning for students, they will never get interested in studying. It is the responsibility of school administration to provide academic opportunities for all students and should make efforts so that all students can succeed. (Arroyo, Rhoad and Drew; 1999)

Problem Solving:

The problem solving ability is usually learnt from early experiences. Students who fail to learn it or who did not have such experience would eventually not bring this capability to their classroom. It would become difficult for them to understand complex forms of learning. On the other hand, the students who have solved problems previously, would be capable of repeating it at school.

Opportunities to Learn:

If a student is from poverty stricken and nonsupporting background, they won’t be able to receive help from their parents. They won’t be getting more opportunities to learn than offered at school. Moreover, if the parents are less educated, they won’t be able to help their children in studies. If a student lives in wrong postcode, they will be unable to attend a great school leading to much harder work and struggle in order to succeed.


Students having hyperactive nature are unable to concentrate thoroughly and this affects their learning ability. There was a fallacy about the hyperactive nature in primitive people that this is due to additives and sugar levels in food. But science has proved that this is inherited feature. Disruption can also be adapted from other students who distract their fellow mates. The reason behind such attitude may be emotional disturbance or hyperactivity.


Attendance at school is of very much importance in gaining achievements. Parents who do not send their children regularly to school do them no favors educationally. Students who take leave from school for long periods feel emotionally distraught and feel disempowered. This can eventually withdraw them from learning and losing hope.


The level of enthusiasm a student can show is influenced by a lot of features ranging from their family background and personal life to the technique of teaching being adapted and the teacher delivering it. If students have the passion for learning, they can gain remarkable achievements. On the other hand, if they have lack of passion for studies, they do not get much success in academic field.

Method of Teaching:

The method which is adapted by teachers matter a lot to students’ learning. Hands on approach to learning seem to be most productive. When children are helped to get involved in studies, stay alert and think creatively, they are more likely to achieve bigger goals. Some students respond better to certain teaching techniques while others won’t go so well with them because every student has his/her own attitude towards learning.


Urban Education:

Urban students face a variety of extraneous factors which other suburban students do not on a daily basis. Urban students have to gain skills so as to lead a prosperous life ahead. In the meanwhile, they are also distracted by so many things. Urban students who live in crime-infested areas have his impact in classroom too. The violence on streets contaminate their little minds and affect their learning ability to a great extent .Student’s motivation is directly affected by these problems and have an influence on their learning capability.(Leland; 2005)

Most of the urban students are usually dropped out of school because they do not have the feeling of trying anymore so they just end up quitting. Some of the students think that teachers have lack of understanding and they are impatient with them. They eventually fail to comprehend what is being taught and mostly skip classes. This becomes a cycle in which children become materialistic and consequently give up altogether. (Lee; 1999) Some students feel left out if they are getting no encouragement or motivation in their career. In such a way, they become resistant in pursuing their education furthermore. According to an ethnographic study, the main reasons for student failures were perceptions of racism, personal relationships with teachers and absenteeism. In urban schools lack of caring, teachers’ apathy and low expectations all contribute to students’ failure. Students will feel happy and satisfied if the teacher has a positive personality. (Slavin; 2005)

In spite of so many hurdles that come into the way of students during their academic career in urban schools, there are still a lot of students who overcome them and manage to succeed. Up till now, many school systems have been repaired by applying school reforms and schools are now making significant and sincere efforts in raising the level of student achievements.  Schools have improved themselves by various methods that include implementing those academic programs which are supported by research, strengthening professional development, setting high standards and ensuring orderly and safe schools. Class sizes are also getting smaller so that struggling students can get extra help. In the modified system, families, staff, school officials and community organizations are all being involved. Urban schools still have a lot to do for making remarkable reforms but significant improvements have been made for students’ achievement .The president of American Federation of Teachers, Sandra Feldman says that the efforts made by urban schools for achieving universal excellence cannot be denied.

Relation between Expectations and Student Achievement:

Both experiment and research have proved that achievement and expectation are inter-related. Assumptions about student’s talent, teacher’s expectation and unconscious biases all affect the achievement of a student. The expectations of teachers which they make about the future results of students affect both the student performance and teacher’s perception. (Bambarg; 2000) Teachers who use coping strategies can cause the failure syndrome of students who might fail from frustration, poor effort and low expectations. Some strategies such as retention, ability grouping and pull-out programs have been backfired. (Costello; 1996)

According to a psychological research, teacher usually tend to expect less from low income and minority students as compared to others. Higher expectations for students’ achievements have proved to be really helpful in enhancing their learning gains. (Hale-Benson; 1986)Negative behavior of teacher can cause students to withdraw from learning in a classroom. Moreover, the values which are culturally-driven can affect student practices and expectations. (Smey-Richamn; 1989)



Effect of Motivation on Learning:

Every student sets certain goals for them. Motivation directs them towards those goals. It also affects the choices made by students whether to enroll in arts or science, whether to play games with friends or complete the homework while staying at home. Motivation increases the amount of energy and efforts that should be spent in achieving certain goals. It helps them to complete a task wholeheartedly. Students can begin a task which they want to do but it sometimes becomes difficult for them to continue working for it and complete it in time. Often they are frustrated by doing the same thing. Motivation increases their passion for completing that task. (Larson; 2000) Motivation also affects the amount of attention learners pay to their work and the extent to which they can effectively process it. For example, the students who are highly motivated by their family and friends often make devoted efforts to understand the lectures thoroughly. They also consider the ways of utilizing the good things in their own lives as well. (Eccles and Wigfield; 1985)

There is usually more effect of grades on students who are motivated to achieve success. They are very excited to have higher grades and if they get some low grade, they get depressed. For instance, forming or not forming football team won’t be a big deal for a student who is not interested in sports but it will be a matter of significance for who is interested in football .In short, motivation cause students to perform quite well in their studies. Highly motivated students often excel in classroom and prove to be the highest achievers.

How to improve Student Achievement:

More than two hundred studies have proved that a skillful, knowledgeable teacher is necessary for remarkable student achievements. The best utilization of schools’ resources is to raise teacher quality which then lead to increase in student’s learning ability. A research at Dallas school showed that a having a less efficient teacher lowered the performance of students, even if a more competent teacher is appointed later on. Ninety percent of the variations between best and worst school depends on the teacher qualification. No good schools can be created without good teachers. In a nutshell, no good schools can be formed without good administrator and no good students can be formed without good teachers. Schools which had highly educated and experienced mathematics teachers give higher achieving students. Students can even achieve in low economy schools only if they have experienced teachers. If a student unfortunately come across two ineffective teachers in consecutive years, his/her academic career is badly affected.

Classroom management is another very essential feature of a good school. A teacher should organize and structure an interactive learning environment in classroom so that students’ learning ability is increased. Schools should not be based on the fad currently in vogue rather they should be based on what students have to achieve through it. Teachers should be effective enough to teach strategic skills and knowledge. Schools usually do not pay sufficient amount of salary to teachers and they are often mistreated. Discipline is not the major problem of schools rather it is lack of routines and procedures. Good staff developers, principals, administrators and assistant principals can effectively train their teachers to manage classroom wisely. In good school, it is necessary for the staff to set measurable and clear goals and always work as a productive team. They should always keep a check on the goals whether they are being achieved or not. Schools can be improved with the help of a constructive staff not with faddish programs. School administrators should be results-driven and goal-oriented. They should know where to spend money in order to achieve their goals. In determining student achievement, the expertise of teacher plays very important role.

For so many years, psychologists and scientists have been nusy in research to find out different ways of learning. A number of theories have been developed which include constructivism, andragogy, behaviorism, non-behaviorism, humanist and many more. Scientists tried to discover the reaction of animals toward new information and they used it in human ways of learning in educational context. In order to develop inclusive learning environment in a classroom, a teacher should form fostering communication, make changes for inclusive setting and create collaborative realationships. He/she should create such an environment in the classroom that supports positive behavior among students.

Task C : Reflective Account

In my point of view, the professional learning activities always have a positive influence on the results of students. A teacher should set up a focus on understanding the connections among the ways different students respond to your lecture, certain teaching activitie and what you think is necessary for your students to learn.A successful teacher is he whose expertise can bring valued outcomes from the students. There is a variety of teaching techniques that we can not be sure about any single method that it would guarantee the desired outcomes for students. Therefore, it is essential to keep a check and remain up to date with the constructive and innovative techniques of teaching so that it  produces a positive impact on student learning ability.Some professional learning opportunities hacve no concern with the effect they should produce on students . They merely work for increasing specific teaching skills regardless of their constructive approach. Desired outcomes for students should include the training about how to learn, comprehending text, developing competent skills and character building. They should not typically focus on the learning of some specific knowledge. It depends on our expertise that how new skills and knowledge should be taught to students that they can get them without any complexity. Teacher expect higher from students when they begin to give improved outcomes.

Teachers involved in effective professional learning do not take the learning difficulties faced by students as a consequence of community and home environment. They are responsible about the positive impact of professional learning and skills on their students thus, they become more effective teachers. Heightened responsibility is a very important factor in enhancing the teaching expertise. In effective professional development, teachers are required to produce theories of curriculum, assessment and effective teaching as well as their practice. Some teachers possess strong curriculum knowledge but weak assessment knowledge, professional development would eradicate this weakness of a good teacher. Particular students have specific demands and the teacher’s professional learning should vary in accordance with these demands. Teachers should have sophisticated assessment skills if they want to realize the knowledge of their students and what further learning they need at home. For this purpose, teachers need a number of ways to assess their students’ progress. They should know the methods of standardized testing which may include systematic analysis of students’ work, interviews with them about their learning and ofcourse classroom observations.

Teachers must identify their own professional learning needs as well as the needs of their students. Teachers require self-regulatory skills so that they can reflect and monitor the effectiveness of changes they made in their teaching strategy. In this way, we will come to know what adjustments we should make in order to enhance the outcomes of students. There wouyld be no benefit to students in the absence of such self-regulation. Self-regulation is an important factor which should be practiced by all the learners whether they be students or teachers.By the help of self-regulation , they can keep a check on the efforts which they have to make in future to enhance their learning.

If there are no clearly defined goals, teachers won’t be able to develop better practice. Teachers are usually unwilling to take part in an inquiry process unless their job is at risk. Deep understanding is required to develop the skills of professional inquiry. Teachers should be able to absorb new information and bring it into practice. Learners may be present physically in any learning situation but are not fully committed to the learning process. As far as teacher’s professional learning is considered, the participation is often voluntary. This volunteering may be due to the administrative and peer pressure. Mostly, the teachers present in that learning process think that they will not be able to bring those suggestions into practice. This should not be tha case. We must always keep on trying to bring changes in our techniques which are not effective so far.

The research shows that learning important content by getting involved into meaningful activities always prove to have greater influence on the outcomes of students than by signing up forcefully into those activities. Teachers should engage sufficiently into the learning process so as to extend their skills and enhance their knowledge in order to improve the students’ outcomes. Initial engagement of teachers in to the learning process may be increased by solving the specific issues of teachers. Furthermore, teachers should be provided such opportunities to explore innovative theories and their impacts on students. If the new information is similar to the teacher’s existing understanding, it can easily be absorbed into their existing strategy. Because teachers usually deny the new ideas conflicting with their existing ideas.

We should reflect on our own approaches to models of reflection, delivery, models of evaluation, use of qualitative and quantitative data, learner evaluation and identifying assessment outcomes being the basis for improvement. We should set achievable, measurable and timely targets for ourselves and try to enhance our existing skills. It is the responsibility of every teacher to regularly monitor the learning abilities of their students in different courses. In addition to this, teachers must ue student feedback so as to bring improvements in their teaching style.


Cocial Care Policy

Posted by Essays on January 22, 2013 in Essay



Social worker

A social worker is an individual who assists people in solving their problems and improves the standard of their lives. Social workers work with individuals who are ill, shelter less or have problems with their family. Social workers also help those students who face trouble in school, because of a bias teacher, bully classmates or adjustment problems. Finding means to solve a problem, is how a social worker helps individuals. For example, if an individual has gone through a trauma, then a social worker would assist that individual by finding them a support group. Social workers find ways through which they can help people and research about what kind of help people need; like finding a shelterless individual at home and a job. Social workers also have the skill of communicating effectively with people, in order to help people understand the nature of their problems and how can they tackle these problems (Saleebey, 1996).

Multi Professional Teams

Multi Professional Teams main aim is to shine a positive light on the other party. All parties have the same idea of human nature and the parties have faith in the notion that people have the aptitude to change. The objective of the work of multi professional teams is the same, which eliminates any competition on the right ideas or about the right alternative for the client. The foundation of a multi professional team depends on the wants of a client. Parties view the client keeping in view their abilities, way of life, improvements or variations in the client’s environment. One team consists of experts belonging to different professions, working as a single unit. Diverse opinions are encouraged in the team to solve problems by brainstorming and discussing every alternative; this also represents the maturity of a team. A team may consist of people belonging to different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To work together, effectively, a team must acknowledge each other’s differences because, during  debate, there would be different viewpoints because of the diversity. If the team does not respect each other, then there would be communication difficulties and the team could face problems in functioning (Hämäläinen & Widgren, 2000. pg73). Since a  social worker would be working along with many experts, they might face confusion and would be baffled. A social worker might face a problem in identifying the main social work mission, especially when working in teams of mental health teams. Recently, establishment has determined to call back their social workers from integrated society mental health teams, which is a response to a calamity in social work individuality and disagreement linking health and social care provision, or it might be more to do with the monetary restrains local authorities are lasting. Opportunities for social workers working in a multi professional team are firstly, having the chance to work with many experts at the same time and learning the different aspects of one situation. As said earlier, social workers do not work alone in the multi professional team, so along with experts like nurses, learning mentors and pastoral personnel. Social workers learn about different cultures, which creates better opportunities for them aborad. The whole multi professional team experience is learning because of it involves experts with diverse knowledge (Barker, 2003).

Values of social workers

Like any other profession, social worker has a set of values which they follow too. They respect the value of a human being and their self-worth, independence, discretion, encouragement and social action which encourages social fairness to prevail. Social workers pursue social work as a career because they realize and know the importance of a human life. They also know that people need  and are self-determined to help themselves. Such a trait is respected by a social worker. Social workers at times play the role of a shrink as they listen to people in order  to solve their problems. In such a scenario, the social worker pursues privacy in order to keep things private like patient-doctor confidentiality. Among the many values set by social workers are social justice, competence and the significance of human relationships (Conner, 2006).

Ethics of social workers

According to UK’s social policy, social workers should be committed to their clients. It is the most vital duty of social workers to promote the well-being or the betterment of their clients, but can be outdated by lawful requirements or duty to the larger society. Social workers’ ethical duty is to value and encourage the client’s right excluding when expert conclusion finds out that clients’ measures create a grave, predictable, and a forthcoming threat to a client or other. Meaning if a client confides in a social worker about an issue and that issue have the potential to harm other people, then the social worker cannot keep that information to himself. Informed consent of the client, in shape of understanding and agreement is a social worker’s ethical duty. Social worker has to assist the client in matters where the client has little or no understanding of the subject matter. If the client is minor and lacks the ability to give consent, then it is the social worker’s ethical responsibility to work in a way which would automatically be in the best interest of the client. Social worker’s should inform client’s about their rights and the length of services offered, even if the client does not ask the social worker. In case a social worker is delivering services through electronic media, then the social worker should let the client know about the limitations of such a communication and also the risks involved. In case the social worker feels the need to audiotape or videotape a conversation, the client should be informed first, and if the client gives the social worker consent to do so, then social worker should carry out such an act (Stuart, 2012). Social worker, while with a client, needs to illustrate the ability within the limit of education, training and qualification. In case the social worker is entering a way of emerging practice, the social worker needs to practice careful verdict to guarantee competence and protect the client. Since social workers work in multi professional teams and also with clients from different backgrounds, illustrating diverse behavior and cultures, the social worker must be competent in social diversity. Social worker, in which ever location he is working needs to understand the culture, how it functions and the major points of that culture. The social worker should increase knowledge about cultural competence and sympathy and demonstrate that knowledge too. The social worker should research on the social diversity like different races within the society, traditions, color, gender, age, conjugal status, religious and political beliefs, common mental and physical disabilities (Statham & Boddy, 2009).

The social worker should be prepared for any conflict of interest that may arise, and should let know the client about it so it can be solved. The social worker should end the relationship with the client, if the conflict of interest cannot be resolved. The social worker must not use his knowledge, skills and abilities to exploit others or use these qualities for personal interest. The social worker must make clear about his professional responsibilities when delivering services to two or more than two clients, who are in a relationship with one another. This eliminates  or reduces the chance of misconceptions or conflicts among the social worker and the clients. Privacy and confidentiality are a significant ethical responsibility in any profession (Stark, 2009). Social workers must not disclose any private information, unless and until it is necessary to provide information. Information should be made available through legal channels or if the client authorizes himself. Information should be kept hidden or private, unless and until that information has the ability to harm the client or any other person. If the social worker is going to disclose information, then he should inform the client, preferably before the information is disclosed. Before the social worker provides services, he should inform the client about where confidentiality applies and under which circumstances, the information would be made accessible to other people. In case of families or couples, the social worker must seek an agreement about an individual’s right to confidentiality and the ethical responsibility to hide information from people other than the client. When writing reports or review’s about the performance, the social worker must use decent language, which shows respect towards the client. The payment fee should be appropriate and just and must comply with the services that the social worker provides. The social worker must consider what the client can pay and must not accept any gifts or other inappropriate arrangements which may prove to be a conflict of interest (Ferguson, 2003).

Skills of a social worker

According to the social policy, since social workers indulge in many settings and deal with a diverse set of people, they need to have vast knowledge about the range of problems and issues which are the foundation or basis of a social welfare turf. Social workers need to have direct involvement with the family of the client, the groups or community services functioning in the society. The social workers would be handling clients and dealing with people involved in the client’s life and therefore they need to have better direction, administrative and managerial skills (Islam, 2011). The social worker must have good observation skills; the observation skills are useful when the social worker asks a question and then observe the reaction of the client or the way in which the question is answered. This is the social worker’s assessment about the nonverbal communication part of the conversation with the client. Self-awareness is another skill that the social worker must possess. Self-awareness here refers to the assessment of the self-conscious part of the social worker. The social worker must be aware of his incentives, theories, prospect and preconceived notions. Critical thinking is another skill of a social worker, which illustrates his ability to interpret information taken from observation, face-to-face communication with the client, research, diagnosis, assessment of the client, treatment for the problem, evaluation after the treatment and then termination if necessary.the three skills, self-awareness, critical thinking and observation are all related to each other (Hick, 1998).

The social viewpoint that social workers have conveyed in the social work setting is that the disabilities and occurrences of persons are frequently much further to do with the society’s stance than the new injury. Critical to the entire topic, as the chronological perception illustrates, is the conception of nationality and ethical insertion. The Government’s Social Exclusion Unit describes the idea as a mixture of connected problems that direct people or places to be disqualified from the majority. Recently, the freshly created a network of social perspective has been explained as a modern social representation of the linked area of mental fitness. Key issues take on the need to appreciate and share to the difficulty of human well-being, and how social and biological feature interact in the construction of health (Payne, 2000). The social perspective of social workers is that they help people and change their lives, in a better way. Social workers make notable contributions towards the society through their skills, knowledge and work. Some people consider social workers as idealists, and some people refer to them as interference in their lives. Social workers follow a code of conduct and know their responsibilities towards individuals and the community as a whole. They balance three filaments in their work which are necessities, jeopardy and human rights (Gilbert, 2003).





Barker, Robert. The Social Work Dictionary. Washington: NASW Press, 2003. Print.

Conner, Ian O. Social Work and Social Care Practice. N.p.: Pine Forge Press, 2006. Print.

Ferguson, Harry. “Outline of a Critical Best Practice Perspective on Social Work and Social Care.” British Journal of Social Work 33.8 (2003): 1005-24. Print.

Gilbert, Peter. “Social Care Services And The Social Perspective.” Psychiatry 2.9 (2003). Print.

Hämäläinen, Juha, and Erja . “Social Work in a Multi-Professional Environment.” IUC Journal of Social Work 2 (2000): 71-73. Print.

Hick, Steven. Social History. 1998. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <>.

Islam, Nadia. Top Five Skills in a Social Worker’s Professional Toolkit.  2011. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <>.

Novell, Rebecca. “Maintaining identity as a social worker in a multidisciplinary team.” (2012). Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <>.

Payne, Malcolm. Working in Multiprofessional Teams.  University of Southampton, 2000. Print.

Statham, June, and Janet Boddy. “European perspectives on social work.” European Perspectives on Social Work: Models of Education and Professional Roles (2009). Print.

Stark, Ruth. Balancing Need, Risk and Rights – A social work perspective. 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <>.

Stuart, Kaz. “Leading multi-professional teams in the children’s workforce: an action research project.” International Journal of Integrated Care (2012). Print.

Statement of Ethical Principles. 2012. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <>.






A Guide to Paper Writing and Custom Research

Posted by Essays on December 22, 2012 in Research Paper

Custom research and paper writing requires enough preparation and most important organization. College or university students have to face this task at one point in their study. It tests critical thinking and finds out if you can be able to adhere to a given topic in a style that presents facts, findings, your interpretation and the depth of your concluding knowledge. Clarity and consistency is very paramount. Accurate information should be provided and the style must symbolize an established phenomenon like the recognized MLA, APA, Chicago or Harvard format.

Custom Research Paper

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Custom Research Papers are Provided by Intellectual Companies

Posted by Essays on December 9, 2012 in Research Paper

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